Büsingen am Hochrhein—A German exclave in Switzerland

Büsingen am Hochrhein
1200px-Büsingen_am_Hochrhein
By Prekario – Own work, all rights released (public domain), Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2065185

 
Location of Büsingen
Location_of_Büsingen_in_detail
By Julian Fleischer aka Warhog (German original); translated by xensyria – , CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=31811102

 
Swiss and German telephone booths in front of the mayor`s office
600px-Büsingen_am_Hochrhein_Swiss_and_German_Telephone_Booth
By DavidmoerikeOwn work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4091963

 

Büsingen am Hochrhein (“Buesingen on the High Rhine”), commonly known as Büsingen, is a German town (7.62 km2 or 2.94 sq mi) entirely surrounded by the Swiss canton of Schaffhausen and, south across the High Rhine, by the Swiss cantons of Zürich and Thurgau. It has a population of about 1,450 inhabitants. Since the early 19th century, the town has been separated from the rest of Germany by a narrow strip of land (at its narrowest, about 700 m wide) containing the Swiss village of Dörflingen.

Administratively, Büsingen is part of Germany, forming part of the district of Konstanz, in the Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, but economically, it forms part of the Swiss customs area, as do the independent principality of Liechtenstein and the Italian town of Campione d’Italia. There are no border controls between Switzerland and Büsingen or the rest of Germany since Switzerland joined the Schengen Area in 2008/09.

Büsingen is highly regarded as a holiday destination in summer by both German and Swiss visitors from around the area for its recreational areas along the Rhine. The town is also the home of the European Nazarene College, a relatively large and internationally oriented Bible college.
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Lascaris War Rooms—Valletta (Malta)

Lascaris War Rooms Entrance
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Lascaris War Rooms19606395364_f34b525fa4_kIMG_8093” (CC BY-ND 2.0) by  Lisa Cherry Aimi 

 

LascarisWarRooms20202392256_140542cb8e_k5” (CC BY-ND 2.0) by  Lisa Cherry Aimi 

The Lascaris War Rooms are an underground complex of tunnels and chambers in Valletta, Malta that housed the War Headquarters from where the defence of the island was conducted during the Second World War. The rooms were later used by NATO and they are now open to the public as a museum.

Work on the secret underground complex started in 1940, during the siege of Malta, when a series of tunnels under the Upper Barrakka Gardens and the Saluting Battery that had been used as slave quarters during the Hospitaller period began to be expanded. The complex was completed in early 1943. The site takes its name from the nearby Fort Lascaris, which was itself named after Giovanni Paolo Lascaris, a Grandmaster who had built a garden on the site later occupied by the fort.

The Lascaris War Rooms contained operations rooms for each of the fighting services, from where both the defence of Malta and other operations in the Mediterranean were coordinated. The Operation Headquarters at Lascaris communicated directly with radar stations around the Maltese islands, and it was equipped with Type X machines. The fleets were led from the Navy Plotting Room, while the Anti-Aircraft Guns Operations Room was responsible for the air defence of the island. In the Coast Defence Room, defensive operations in the case of an amphibious invasion were planned. The Filter Room displayed information received from various places, including the naval station at Auberge de Castille.

Lascaris was the advance Allied HQ from where General Eisenhower and his Supreme Commanders Admiral Cunningham, Field Marshal Montgomery and Air Marshal Tedder directed the Allied invasion of Sicily (Operation Husky) in 1943.

Throughout the war, around 1000 people worked in the rooms, including 240 soldiers.

After the war, Lascaris became the Headquarters of the Royal Navy’s Mediterranean Fleet. They played an active part during the Suez Crisis of 1956, and were put into full alert during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, when a Soviet missile strike against Malta was feared.

In 1967, the complex was taken over by NATO to be used as a strategic Communication Centre for the interception of Soviet submarines in the Mediterranean. The war rooms continued to serve this function until they were closed down in 1977.
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Pjazza San Pawl and Malta National Aquarium at Triq it-Trunciera in St. Paul’s Bay, Malta

1200px-Malta_-_St._Paul's_Bay_-_Triq_it-Trunciera_-_Pjazza_San_Pawl+National_Aquarium_03_ies
By Frank Vincentz – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=33194872