Principality of Hutt River—(Northampton/WA/Australia)

Principality of Hutt River
1200px-HRP3
By BärasSelf-photographed, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18129722

 
Hutt River Government Offices and Post Office
1200px-OIC_hutt_river_buildings
By User:OrderinchaosOwn work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18908041

 
Hutt River Souvenir shop
1200px-OIC_hutt_river_souvenir_shop
By User:OrderinchaosOwn work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18908058

 

The Principality of Hutt River, previously known as the Hutt River Province, is the oldest micronation in Australia. The principality claims to be an independent sovereign state and to have achieved legal status on 21 April 1970, although it remains unrecognised by Australia and other nations. The principality is located 517 km (354 mi) north of Perth, near the town of Northampton in the state of Western Australia. If considered independent, it is an enclave of Australia. It is a regional tourist attraction.

The principality was founded on 21 April 1970 by Leonard George Casley, who styles himself as “Prince Leonard”, when he and his associates proclaimed their secession from Western Australia. His wife Shirley, styled as “Princess Shirley”, died on 7 July 2013.
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Büsingen am Hochrhein—A German exclave in Switzerland

Büsingen am Hochrhein
1200px-Büsingen_am_Hochrhein
By Prekario – Own work, all rights released (public domain), Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2065185

 
Location of Büsingen
Location_of_Büsingen_in_detail
By Julian Fleischer aka Warhog (German original); translated by xensyria – , CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=31811102

 
Swiss and German telephone booths in front of the mayor`s office
600px-Büsingen_am_Hochrhein_Swiss_and_German_Telephone_Booth
By DavidmoerikeOwn work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4091963

 

Büsingen am Hochrhein (“Buesingen on the High Rhine”), commonly known as Büsingen, is a German town (7.62 km2 or 2.94 sq mi) entirely surrounded by the Swiss canton of Schaffhausen and, south across the High Rhine, by the Swiss cantons of Zürich and Thurgau. It has a population of about 1,450 inhabitants. Since the early 19th century, the town has been separated from the rest of Germany by a narrow strip of land (at its narrowest, about 700 m wide) containing the Swiss village of Dörflingen.

Administratively, Büsingen is part of Germany, forming part of the district of Konstanz, in the Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, but economically, it forms part of the Swiss customs area, as do the independent principality of Liechtenstein and the Italian town of Campione d’Italia. There are no border controls between Switzerland and Büsingen or the rest of Germany since Switzerland joined the Schengen Area in 2008/09.

Büsingen is highly regarded as a holiday destination in summer by both German and Swiss visitors from around the area for its recreational areas along the Rhine. The town is also the home of the European Nazarene College, a relatively large and internationally oriented Bible college.
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Hot Springs of Saturnia—(Tuscany/Italy)

Cascate del Mulino (Mill waterfalls)
1200px-Saturnia_Cascate_del_Mulino
By Markus BernetOwn work, CC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1137376

1195px-Cascate_del_Gorello_a_Saturnia
By WaugsbergOwn work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=499199

The Terme di Saturnia are a group of springs located in the municipality of Manciano, a few kilometers from the village of Saturnia. The springs that feed the baths, which are found in the south-eastern valley, cover a vast territory that stretches from Mount Amiata and the hills of Fiora and Albegna rivers to the Maremma grossetana at Roselle (Terme di Roselle) and Talamone (Terme dell’Osa).

The sulphurous spring water, at a temperature of 37.5 °C, are well known for their therapeutic properties, offering relaxation and well being through immersion. The main thermal waterfalls are the Mill Falls, located at an old mill as well as the Waterfalls of Gorello.

The yield of the source is about 800 liters per second, which guarantees an optimal replacement of water. The chemical make-up is sulfur, carbon, sulfate, bicarbonate-alkaline, earth, with the presence of hydrogen sulfide gas and carbon dioxide. The minerals dissolved in water amount to 2.79 grams per liter.

The area of Saturnia Spa presents, as a whole, a large and freely accessible area where it has developed the famed luxury spa of Terme di Saturnia, where, in addition to various thermal treatments, also produces thermal perfumes and creams for men and women.
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AutoWorld-Vintage Car Museum in Brussels (Belgium)

Autoworld in Brussels
1200px-Autoworld_Cinquantenaire
By No machine-readable author provided. Ben2~commonswiki assumed (based on copyright claims). – No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims)., CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=825828

 
Autoworld Interior
1200px-Autoworld_002
By VarechOwn work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7545189

Autoworld is a vintage car museum in the center of Brussels, Belgium, located in the southern hall of the Cinquantenaire Park.

It holds a large and varied collection of 350 vintage European and American automobiles from the late 19th century until the seventies. Including Minervas, such models as a 1928 Bentley, a 1930 Bugatti and a 1930 Cord and several limousines which belonged to the Belgian royal family.
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Freetown Christiania—Autonomous neighborhood (Copenhagen/Denmark)

Entrance to Christiania
1200px-Entrée_de_Christiania
By Bruno Jargot – Transferred from fr.wikipedia to Commons., CC BY-SA 1.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=617552

 
Christianas Common Law
675px-Chritianias_common_law
By JeuleuOwn work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6708720

Christiania, also known as Freetown Christiania (Danish: Fristaden Christiania or Staden), is a self-proclaimed autonomous neighborhood of about 850 residents, covering 34 hectares (84 acres) in the borough of Christianshavn in the Danish capital Copenhagen. Civic authorities in Copenhagen regard Christiania as a large commune, but the area has a unique status in that it is regulated by a special law, the Christiania Law of 1989, which transfers parts of the supervision of the area from the municipality of Copenhagen to the state. It was temporarily abandoned by residents in April 2011, whilst discussions continued with the Danish government as to its future, but is now open again.

Christiania has been a source of controversy since its creation in a squatted military area in 1971. Its cannabis trade was tolerated by authorities until 2004. In the years following 2004, measures for normalizing the legal status of the community led to conflicts, police raids and negotiations.
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Houses in Christiania
1200px-Houses in ChristianiaHuse_paa_volden2
By Nico-dk (talk) 08:34, 22 May 2010 (UTC) / Nils Jepsen – Own work (own photo), CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10394928

 

Exit of the free town Christiania in Copenhagen
1087px-Christiania_Exit
By Steffen Hillebrand Steffen84Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2868466

Lascaris War Rooms—Valletta (Malta)

Lascaris War Rooms Entrance
506px-Lascaris_War_Room_Entrance
By Pi3.124Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=39500606

 

Lascaris War Rooms19606395364_f34b525fa4_kIMG_8093” (CC BY-ND 2.0) by  Lisa Cherry Aimi 

 

LascarisWarRooms20202392256_140542cb8e_k5” (CC BY-ND 2.0) by  Lisa Cherry Aimi 

The Lascaris War Rooms are an underground complex of tunnels and chambers in Valletta, Malta that housed the War Headquarters from where the defence of the island was conducted during the Second World War. The rooms were later used by NATO and they are now open to the public as a museum.

Work on the secret underground complex started in 1940, during the siege of Malta, when a series of tunnels under the Upper Barrakka Gardens and the Saluting Battery that had been used as slave quarters during the Hospitaller period began to be expanded. The complex was completed in early 1943. The site takes its name from the nearby Fort Lascaris, which was itself named after Giovanni Paolo Lascaris, a Grandmaster who had built a garden on the site later occupied by the fort.

The Lascaris War Rooms contained operations rooms for each of the fighting services, from where both the defence of Malta and other operations in the Mediterranean were coordinated. The Operation Headquarters at Lascaris communicated directly with radar stations around the Maltese islands, and it was equipped with Type X machines. The fleets were led from the Navy Plotting Room, while the Anti-Aircraft Guns Operations Room was responsible for the air defence of the island. In the Coast Defence Room, defensive operations in the case of an amphibious invasion were planned. The Filter Room displayed information received from various places, including the naval station at Auberge de Castille.

Lascaris was the advance Allied HQ from where General Eisenhower and his Supreme Commanders Admiral Cunningham, Field Marshal Montgomery and Air Marshal Tedder directed the Allied invasion of Sicily (Operation Husky) in 1943.

Throughout the war, around 1000 people worked in the rooms, including 240 soldiers.

After the war, Lascaris became the Headquarters of the Royal Navy’s Mediterranean Fleet. They played an active part during the Suez Crisis of 1956, and were put into full alert during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, when a Soviet missile strike against Malta was feared.

In 1967, the complex was taken over by NATO to be used as a strategic Communication Centre for the interception of Soviet submarines in the Mediterranean. The war rooms continued to serve this function until they were closed down in 1977.
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Guinness Storehouse in Dublin (Republic of Ireland)

Guinness Storehouse in Dublin
1200px-Loz_guinness_factory_Dublin
By Alex LozuponeOwn work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=47536434

 

Bottle display, Guinness Storehouse
Bottle_display,_Guinness_Storehouse_-_geograph.org.uk_-_705282
By Lisa Jarvis, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=13366496

 

The building in which the Storehouse is located was constructed in 1902 as a fermentation plant for the St. James’s Gate Brewery (where yeast is added to the brew). The building was designed in the style of the Chicago School of Architecture and was the first multi-storey steel-framed building to be constructed in Ireland. The building was used continuously as the fermentation plant of the Brewery until its closure in 1988, when a new fermentation plant was completed near the River Liffey.

In 1997, it was decided to convert the building into the Guinness Storehouse, replacing the Guinness Hop Store as the Brewery’s visitor centre. The redesign of the building was undertaken by the UK-based design firm Imagination in conjunction with the Dublin-based architects firm RKD, and the Storehouse opened to the public on 2 December 2000. In 2006 a new wing was developed at a cost of €2.5 million, including a live installation demonstrating the modern brewing process.

In May 2011, Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip visited the Storehouse as part of a state visit to Ireland.

The Guinness Storehouse explains the history of Guinness. The story is told through various interactive exhibition areas including ingredients, brewing, transport, cooperage, advertising and sponsorship.

At the base of the atrium lies a copy of the 9,000 year lease signed by Arthur Guinness on the brewery site. In the Perfect Pint bar, visitors may pour their own pint of Guinness. The Brewery Bar on the fifth floor offers Irish cuisine, using Guinness both in the cooking and as an accompaniment to food.
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Huis Doorn (Doorn Manor)——Residence in exile of the last German Emperor Wilhelm II-Province of Utrecht/The Netherlands

Doorn Manor with a bust of Wilhelm II
Huis Doorn---1200px-Wilhelm_II_Bust_@_Doorn
By Charles01 – my own collection, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2377243

Dining room
1200px-Eetkamer_in_Huis_Doorn_(9182322296)
By Sebastiaan ter Burg from Utrecht, The Netherlands – Eetkamer in Huis DoornUploaded by ter-burg, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27145145

Mausoleum of Wilhelm II
1200px-Mausoleumwhilhelm
By Iijjccoo at Dutch Wikipedia – Transferred from nl.wikipedia to Commons., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1858965

Huis Doorn (English: Doorn Manor) is a manor house and national museum in the town of Doorn in the Netherlands. The museum shows the early 20th-century interior from the time when former German Emperor Wilhelm II lived in the house.

Huis Doorn was first built in the 9th century. It was rebuilt in the 14th century, after it was destroyed. It was again rebuilt in the 19th century to its present-day form. The gardens were also created in the 19th century. After World War I, Wilhelm II bought the house, where he lived in exile from 1920 until his death in 1941. He is buried in a mausoleum in the gardens. After the German occupation in World War II, the house was seized by the Dutch government as hostile property.

Huis Doorn is now a national museum and a national heritage site. The interior of the house has not been changed since Wilhelm II died. Every year in June, German monarchists come to Doorn to pay their respects to the emperor. In 2012, the museum had 25,000 visitors.
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German Navy Museum-Wilhelmshaven/Germany

Marinemuseum_Wilhelmshaven
CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=118752

Maritime_Meile
By KuK, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=382621

 
Submarine Type 205-U10
1200px-Marinemuseum_Wilhelmshaven_-_Flickr_-_Axel_Schwenke_(33)
By Axel Schwenke from Meschede, Deutschland – Marinemuseum Wilhelmshaven, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18472298

Baarle-Nassau (The Netherlands)—The fascinatingly complicated border town

Baarle-Nassau town hall
1200px-P1070673Gemeentehuis
By G.LantingOwn work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17768314

Baarle-Nassau  is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands, located in North Brabant province. It had a population of 6,626 in 2014.
It is closely linked, with complicated borders, to the Belgian exclaves of Baarle-Hertog. Baarle-Hertog consists of 26 separate pieces of land. Apart from the main piece (called Zondereigen) located north of the Belgian town of Merksplas, there are 22 Belgian exclaves in the Netherlands and three other pieces on the Dutch-Belgian border. There are also six Dutch exclaves located within the largest Belgian exclave, one within the second-largest, and an eighth within Zondereigen. The smallest Belgian parcel, H22, measures 2,632 square metres (about 28,330 square feet).
The border’s complexity results from a number of equally complex medieval treaties, agreements, land-swaps and sales between the Lords of Breda and the Dukes of Brabant. Generally speaking, predominantly agricultural or built environments became constituents of Brabant, other parts devolved to Breda. These distributions were ratified and clarified as a part of the borderline settlements arrived at during the Treaty of Maastricht in 1843.
For clarification and the interest of tourists, the border is made visible on all streets with iron pins. This way it is always clear whether one is in Belgium (Baarle-Hertog) or in The Netherlands (Baarle-Nassau). This is also visible on the house numbers: the style of house numbers is different in both countries and often one will find the Dutch or Belgian flag next to the number.
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Border between Netherlands and Belgium in Baarle-Nassau
Baarle-Nassau_frontière_café
By User:JérômeOwn work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1564073